Duetto 2

Ultra-portable XRD/XRF for Cultural Heritage

Duetto, first launched in 2010, was the first commercial X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) instrument specifically designed for Cultural Heritage. Duetto enables non-invasive in-situ  XRD and XRF analysis of a small region of an object to measure mineralogy and chemistry. 

Duetto was developed specifically for the Art and Archeometry market. It can be used in the laboratory or deployed in the field (museum, archaeological site, restoration project, etc) using a variety of mounting options

The technology inside Duetto derives from NASA’s CheMin instrument inside the Curiosity Mars rover. Whereas CheMin is based on a transmission geometry that requires sampling and grinding the material to coarse powders, Duetto works in reflection and objects are analyzed without sampling. A prerequisite to data quality is sufficiently fine grains which is typically the case with pigments.

Duetto 2  is an updated version of Duetto 1. The general concept of Duetto 1 remains unchanged. A number of improvements are implemented in the new design, including:

  • increased clearance to the sample,
  • single unit with integrated power supplies,
  • improved portability from miniaturized design,
  • new deep-cooling CCD X-ray camera,
  • upgraded miniature X-ray tube (Co or Cu),
  • embedded imaging camera for positioning,
  • new micro-focused laser beam for precise positioning,
  • optional motorized adjustment of distance to sample,
  • and more…
Conceptual 3D model of Duetto 2 showing the reflection geometry for non-invasive XRD/XRF analysis.

Easy operation

The instrument is aligned relative to the object using an embed imaging system and fine laser beam. Various mounts are available for precise positioning.

Both XRD and XRF data are extracted from a series of CCD exposures. During an analysis the CCD X-ray detector is read every five to ten seconds. Raw CCD data are processed in real time and XRD/XRF plots are visualized on the computer. The Duetto 2 application provides tools for preliminary analysis of the data during the acquisition. 

XRF data, obtained from the exact same spot of the object as XRD, are very informative and practical in helping with the phase identification of complex samples, or confirming the nature of the phases found independently by XRD.

Example of data

Duetto 1 analysis of cadmium orange paint.

Left : 2D XRD pattern and diffractogram with phase identification revealing the presence of barite in the paint.

Right: XRF spectra of cadmium orange paint (blue) compared to pure cadmium orange pigment (red). The Ba signature in the XRF confirms the interpretation of barite in the XRD pattern.

Pigments can be usually identified in minutes.

* Duetto 1 data

XRD analysis

XRD data of Duetto can be analyzed with any powder XRD analysis package. Unless the user already owns such an application, we recommend Xpowder (provided as an option), and the online tool QAnalyze.com.

A free diffraction database is provided that includes most crystalline phases expected in cultural heritage material. Other 3rd party databases and XRD programs can also be used to satisfy the user’s preferences.

Example of applications

Duetto can be used in the laboratory or deployed in the field (museum, archaeological site, restoration site, etc). 

For a detailed description of the variety of mounting options offered for Duetto, click here.

All examples are from Duetto 1.

First deliveries of Duetto 2 are expected in the 3rd quarter of 2020. We are taking orders at this time. 

Please, Contact us for more details.